The production process of hotel furniture includes six steps, which are bleaching, carving, polishing, painting, coloring and back cover.
Hotel furniture production process 1: bleaching
In most cases, bleaching is a remedial measure, not a routine part of the process. If there are obvious stains, black spots or water stains on the wood surface; If the wood is spotted and stained; If the color is uneven; Or if old stains are removed and old spots and fillers remain on the boards, the furniture will need to be bleached. For oak, walnut and mahogany, the original filler is often a tricky problem. For furniture made from two or more types of wood, bleaching can even out the color. It lightens the darker wood to match the lighter wood.
Before you bleach any furniture, make sure the wood is suitable for bleaching. Some wood is not suitable for bleaching - cherry and basswood, for example, cannot be bleached. Some wood, such as basswood, cedar, chestnut, elm, redwood and redwood, is hard to bleach, while other light-colored wood (especially pine and aspen) is bleached to make it look lifeless. Birch, maple and walnut can be bleached, but bleaching will spoil their distinctive colour. Other rare trees -- mahogany, teak, and other fine woods -- rarely bleach well. Common, easily bleached wood, including ash, beech, rubber, and oak, may have a better bleaching effect.
Bleaching post treatment
Simple hotel furniture industry said that any kind of bleaching will make wood grain uplift, even if the furniture has been thoroughly sandpaper. To prevent raised textures from affecting the paint, you must polish the wood again after it has dried.
After bleaching, dry the furniture for at least two days. Then use 5/0 or 6/0 sandpaper to gently smooth out the raised wood grain. Be careful not to make the surface rough. Because there are some chemical residues in the wood, it is best to wear a breathing mask and use a vacuum cleaner to remove the dust from the sandpaper. Wipe the furniture clean with a coarse cloth.
Another negative effect of bleaching, especially with laundry bleach, is that wood can turn white or gray. This situation is not serious; It shows that bleach has dehydrated the fibers on the surface of the wood. For hard wood, this color will disappear after painting. For soft wood, grey will be evident, as will loose fibres. To remove them, use no. 000 steel velvet to rub the wood vigorously along the grain; Rub all the bleached areas together to give a uniform color. After painting, the grey will disappear completely.
Hotel furniture production process two: carving
To carve adorn, want to follow the grain of lumber, in the interior of carve design gently burnish. Be careful not to grind the wood flat.
Carve adorn, especially a few shallow carve design, must want to undertake serious processing to its. Because the rough polishing may make the lines of the carving become blurred, so you can only use 5/0 and 6/0 fine sandpaper to polish the fine wood; No grinding block is needed to work. Lightly polish along the grain of the wood and press your finger down on the sandpaper to get deep into the recessed area of the pattern. Polish as much as possible to the very inside of the carved pattern, but be careful not to flatten the delicate surface.
Hotel furniture production process three: grinding
1. Polishing techniques
The first rule of burnish is to burnish along the grain, because if you burnish against the grain, you will leave a significant permanent scratch. The second rule is to use grinding blocks, because if you don't use grinding blocks, you can't guarantee a uniform grinding force.
When grinding, always want to use the pad grinding block along the wood grain grinding, to achieve "line length, light force, hand stability."
For flat surfaces, the grinding block should be upholstered; A block without a cushion will not be elastic, so the sand from the sandpaper will scratch the surface of the wood as it is polished. For curved surfaces, your best bet is to wrap sandpaper with a thick foam pad or sponge. These fillings can change their shape according to the curvature of the wood, so that the grinding force is stable and uniform.
Excellent polishing technology is easy to learn and easy to use. Grinding blocks are used along the grain of the wood, with long, light and even distances for each stroke. Don't press down hard; Too much force can cause grooves to appear on the edge of the grinding block. Replace the sandpaper as soon as it is stuck together or worn out.
You can gradually change to finer and finer sandpaper to polish the wood surface evenly and thoroughly to make it smooth. The surface is slightly rough after the first polish, but becomes smooth after the next, and the last polish will remove the remaining rough marks. Start with coarse sandpaper - for most wood you will use 3/0 sandpaper, and for very soft wood, such as pine or poplar, use 4/0 sandpaper. Gradually change to 4/0 and 5/0 sandpaper, and finally use 6/0 sandpaper. Although, in theory, the finer the sandpaper used, the smoother the wood surface will be, using too fine sandpaper will not only clog the wood's fine holes, but also affect the effect of the paint.
Gradually change to sandpaper of various types to carry on polishing to whole furniture. In between grinds, use a brush or vacuum cleaner to clean up any debris from the grinding, and then wipe the wood clean with a rough cloth. Dust and sandpaper particles can leave scratches on wood surfaces. For corners where the sandpaper cannot be polished, you can use a sharp spatula to carefully scrape the wood surface flat. Because the scraper will leave scratches or scratches on the wood surface, it is best to use the scraper only where it cannot be polished.
2. Rails, circles and railings
Narrow rails, railings, struts and other round parts require special treatment. When grinding with coarse sandpaper hard friction, whether or not with the grinding block, will make these round parts flat or deformation; These round parts should be worn away with the least amount of wood. To polish the round part, cut the fine sandpaper (no. 5/0 and no. 6/0) into thin strips; Never use sandpaper with a coarser grain.
Wrap a strip of sandpaper around the area you want to polish, across the surface, and pull the two ends back and forth to polish the wood. If you want the wood surface to be smooth and even, you need to move the sandpaper strips up and down in each of the round parts, adjusting the Angle of polishing from time to time. Be careful not to leave horizontal grooves in the edges of the sandpaper strips on the wood.
3. Cracks and curved edges
Use a folded sandpaper strip to polish along the crack to fit the Angle of the crack. Polish only slowly along the crevices; And keep the force even.
And make sure the sandpaper doesn't slip. If you are careless, you may damage the wooden edges on either side of the gap. When polishing the raised curve, press the sandpaper lightly with your finger and carefully polish along the curve, taking care not to damage any adjacent surfaces or edges. When polishing a recessed curve, use a pin corresponding to the diameter of the curve. Wrap the nail in sandpaper and carefully polish it back and forth along the curve. At both ends of the curve, be careful not to let the pins damage any adjacent surfaces.
4. Plywood and gloss
If your furniture is made of plywood, it needs to be treated with care. The usual polishing techniques can cause serious damage to the wood. The same is true for wood that has a delicate sheen - the usual polish will strip away the sheen. For best results, you should lightly polish the plywood and wood with a delicate sheen.
When polishing a recessed curve, use a wooden nail that is wrapped in sandpaper and is the same size as the diameter of the curve.
Use fine sandpaper no. 5/0 or no. 6/0 when polishing a smooth, solid, full face of plywood. Do not use rough sandpaper. For very thin plywood and shiny wood, it is best to polish it with steel velvet. The technique is the same as sandpaper, what you really need is patience.
If the surface is rough, you polish it with 0# steel velvet, then follow with 00# and 000# steel velvet for the final finish. If the surface is smooth, only fine steel velvet can be used. Between grinding, use a brush or vacuum cleaner to remove all dust and steel velvet, and then wipe the wood clean with a rough cloth.
Hotel furniture production process four: paint.
When the wood gets wet, the cells that make up the texture expand, so that the texture bulges on the surface of the wood. Any liquid can cause this reaction; Even if the wood surface is polished, the painting itself will bring out the texture of the wood. Want to prevent the furniture surface that had besmear finish paint to appear the grain of bump, that you should be in after last burnish, before brush paint, make grain bump first consciously, it is burnish again.
The easiest way to make the texture pop is with water. Dip in cold water with sponge will be polished after the furniture soaked, ensure that the wood wet evenly and completely; Then wipe off the excess water. The wood must be wet evenly, without dry spots or standing water, or it will leave water stains when it dries. Be extra careful not to let the plywood get too wet; The glue that binds the plywood may dissolve in water.
Hotel furniture production process five: coloring
1. Coloring precautions:
Let the wood dry thoroughly. When the wood is thoroughly dried, the raised textured fibers appear on the surface of the wood. Lightly polish the raised fibers on the wood surface with a 5/0 or 6/0 sandpaper; On some very fragile wood surfaces, 000# steel velvet is used for polishing. Be careful not to roughen the surface. Then, use a brush or vacuum cleaner to remove the debris from the grinding and wipe the wood clean with a coarse cloth. Finally, you're ready to color, right? Not so fast.
Before you start coloring your furniture, there are a lot of things you need to know. In the next section, we'll help you choose the right colorant for your wood. Wood is a beautiful material, but not all wood is equally beautiful. Superior wood is favored mainly for its beautiful color and texture; The effect of common furniture lumber is a bit poorer, not because they are not strong enough, look because they are not beautiful enough however. Antique furniture, whether hardwood or cork, usually looks pretty, simply because it has a sheen that new wood doesn't have. There's one great thing that makes wood look better when you're renovating furniture: colorants.
People have all kinds of reasons for coloring furniture. Use coloring agent correctly, can have the effect that highlights lumber grain, and still can give the lumber characteristic of furniture brightness. It can make new wood look old, or ordinary wood look like some precious wood. It can make the boards of both types of wood look like one, restore the color of the bleached areas, and change or deepen the color of any wood. Although coloring is not always a good idea, it does solve many problems.
You should take a good look at the furniture before you colour it. If it is made of cherry, maple, mahogany, redwood, old pine, or any other precious wood, it is best not to stain it; Because the original natural color of the wood looks most beautiful. If the wood is lighter in color and the texture is relatively normal, coloring may be a good choice. Beech, birch, aspen, cen, rubber and new pine are usually coloured before the finish. Some trees, such as oak, look attractive whether they are colored or not. Generally speaking, if you are not sure whether coloring can improve the color of the wood, then you had better not easily for your furniture coloring.
The personage inside course of study of furniture of postmodern hotel points out, before coloring for furniture, can brush on inconspicuous place first a bit of finish paint, see the effect when lumber is not colored how.
Wood type is not the only guiding idea for coloring, your own preferences should be the deciding factor. To find out how furniture looks when it's not painted, you can take a quiz in an inconspicuous area -- like the bottom of a table -- with any finish you plan to paint. After the finish, the wood will deepen in color and texture will show. If you like your furniture the way it is, there is no need to color it. If you want the wood to be darker, or the texture to be more pronounced, start coloring it.
When you figure out the type of wood you want to color, it's not that difficult to choose a coloring agent that makes the wood look more vibrant. There are many types to choose from.
2. Color selection
There are several colorants to choose from: wipe colorants, water-based colorants, color primers, and NGR colorants. Some colorants are mixed with primers and are usually labeled as colorants/primers. Not all colorants are easy to use or guarantee good results, so take a few minutes to plan and read labels before you take action.
The first thing to consider is what kind of finish you are going to use. Most topcoats can be painted over most colorants, but polyurethane varnishes cannot be painted over some colorants. If you want to use a polyurethane varnish, which is both attractive and durable, look for a colorant that is compatible with polyurethane. If you cannot find a compatible colorant, you will have to apply a transparent resin primer to the incompatible colorant. Add a layer of varnish to this primer to make your furniture sparkle.
The second consideration in choosing a colorant is how you expect it to work. The most commonly used furniture colorants are made from pigments mixed with oil or turpentine, or aniline dyes mixed with turpentine, water, alcohol or volatile essential oils. Other types of colorants include varnishes, primers, and organic colorants.
(1) pigment type oily colorant
The pigment - based oil stain is impermeable. They are made by mixing pigments with linseed oil, turpentine, petroleum solvent oil, or similar solvents. They are sometimes gelatinous. Not only are they cheap and easy to use, but the premise is that the texture of the wood is very loose, as this colorant often blurs the texture.
These colorants usually do not work well on hardwoods, but for some hardwoods with a tight texture like maple, they can play a role in slightly deepening the color of the wood. Pigment type oil colorant can also play a role in improving the brightness of color and luster. When in use, paint type oily stain on the surface of the wood, after the wood to achieve the ideal color will be wiped off. The depth of the color is determined by how long the stain stays on the wood. It can take a long time to dry, and the colorant must be sealed to prevent the finish from seeping. The wood is also sealed before use. Over time, the color will fade away.
(2) infiltrating oil colorant
Osmotic oil-based colorants are very popular now; They are made by mixing aniline dyes with turpentine or similar solvents. They are cheap and easy to use, but they often do not penetrate evenly. As a result, they do not work well on hardwoods, so they are best used on pine and other soft woods. For tightly textured hardwoods, such as maple, the stain will deepen the color slightly.
When used, apply the permeable oil stain on the wood surface and wipe it off after the wood has reached the desired color. The depth of the color is determined by how long the stain stays on the wood. It takes a long time to dry, and in order to prevent the paint from seeping, the colorant must be sealed. Once the stain is dry, it is difficult to remove. They are rich and clear, but fade over time.
(3)NGR(no fluff) colorant
NGR colorants are made by mixing aniline dyes, denaturing alcohol, and volatile essential oils such as methanol. They are not only expensive, but also difficult to use. Alcohol colorants fade over time and must be sealed to prevent coloration. They are not yet compatible with shellac varnishes. Alcohol-soluble NGR colorants do not fade or seep, and they produce more uniform colors.
Both alcoholic and alcohol-soluble NGR colorants dry very quickly. Accordingly, action wants when besmear brushwork fast, brush to want even. Repeat with a few thin coats of paint to minimize overlap. One color can be applied directly to another, but too dark a color must be bleached. For hardwoods, especially tightly textured hardwoods, oily colorants are often not fully absorbed, and NGR colorants are a good choice. NGR stain should not be used on cork.
(4) organic colorant
Several organic colorants can be used on pine and other wood surfaces. The most common organic colorants use tobacco as a source of color, but many are made from tree bark, roots, tea, berries and other natural resources. These colorants are all very interesting, but unless you are very skilled at refurbishing, it is best not to try them.
(5) water-based colorant
Water-based colorants should be used on clean bare or fresh wood. You can use a new brush to quickly and evenly apply the stain along the grain of the wood. Each brush should be long and smooth. Try not to overlap the position of the previous brush with each brush; The color of the double layer colorant will be twice as dark as that of the single layer colorant when dried. Therefore, in order to reduce the overlap of brush marks, it is better to brush several layers of diluted colorant, rather than only brush a layer of dark colorant.
If the area of the furniture you are renovating is small, you can make appropriate adjustments to the water-based colorant. The use of water-based colorant can follow the following method, that is, in the furniture surface daub a large number of colorant; Then wipe off the excess stain and use a clean cloth to rub along the texture. The depth of the color is determined by how long the excess stain stays on the wood surface; If you want a lighter color, wipe off the excess stain immediately. Conversely, if you want a darker color, extend the time the stain stays on the surface. After coloring, allow to dry for about 24 hours. If the color is still not deep enough, repeat the coloring step.
3. The color paint
Coloring paint is an impermeable coloring agent, which is made by adding aniline dye to the base of varnish. Manufacturers usually use tint to paint drawers, furniture backs and other hidden areas because it is cheap and no longer needed. However, this tint looks cheap and is generally not recommended as a top coat.
4. The primer
Primers are impermeable colorants made from a mixture of varnish, shellac or nitrocellulose base. Two coats of paint are often applied and the wood surface must be waxed for protection. No further painting is required.
Apply the right coloring techniques, not only can save you time, but also can make everything in order. In the next section, we will review the best ways to mix and apply colorants. No matter what coloring agent you use, the most important thing is to get the color you want. Perhaps you will be able to buy the desired color. If not, if you have a sample of the coloring agent color you want, you can take it to the paint shop and mix it with several other colors to get the color you want. Until you get the right color, experiment constantly, mixing small amounts of several colorants together and testing them on scrap wood until you get the desired color effect.
Although colorants in a variety of colors are available, almost any color can be mixed with two or more of the following four basic colors: light oak (tan), walnut (brown), maple (orange), and mahogany (red). Most vendors offer a mix of color effects.
By adding a drop or two of black coloring, you can darken the other colorants. First, a small amount of several colorants are mixed together. Then, gradually add some solvent to dilute the colorant and test it on the waste wood until you get the desired color. Remember the mixing ratio of the various ingredients so that you can replicate the same mixture. When you get a favorite color, test it in the shade of your furniture. If the furniture is made of two or more kinds of wood, you may have to mix different colorants for each type of wood, but usually this is not necessary.
When you are satisfied with the color of the colorant, you can prepare enough colorant for the whole furniture. Do not mix different brands and types of colorants, and do not switch brands and types of colorants in between. It's better to have a few left over than not having enough colorant to leave a table leg or chair arm unbrushed.
No matter what kind of colorant you are using, you'd better be careful when painting. If you're not sure if the right color is what you want, dilute the coloring to a lighter color and brush a few more layers until you get to your desired shade. Always test the color effect in an inconspicuous place and color the most inconspicuous surface first. It may take a while to get the effect you want in this way, but the only way to save a coloring failure is to rebleach it and start all over again.
To prevent the appearance on furniture surface drip mark or color is not even, want to rotate furniture from time to time, the furniture surface that can assure coloring so is always horizontal. If your furniture is too big to rotate, start at the bottom and work your way up. When brushing, the movement should always be fast and smooth evenly brush the coloring agent on the entire surface of the furniture.
5. Light up
Dark wood can be brightened with a coloring agent to give it an interesting shading effect. For fine wood, lighting is usually not recommended because the coloring agent will cover the original color and texture of the wood. As a last resort, though, this treatment can yield remarkable results. On the wood with loose texture, the effect of lighting treatment is the most significant. Because the wood's texture is full of light or white pigments, it presents a brighter color. Lightening agents are sometimes diluted white paint, but they are usually pigment-based oily colorants.
You can follow the steps described above to apply the oil colorant and keep it for a period of time to get the desired effect. Wipe off the excess stain and allow the wood to dry completely.
6. Treatment after coloring
Any colorant (even if oily) will give the texture of the wood a slight bump. If necessary, wait for the stain to dry thoroughly before removing any of the fine roughness, but be careful when polishing to avoid removing the stain. For wood that has been coated with oil stain, the option is to polish it with 000# or 0000# steel velvet. Wood that has been coated with a water-based colorant or an NGR colorant can be lightly polished with fine sandpaper. Use a coarse cloth to wipe off any debris from the grinding. During the grinding process, some water-based colorant may be removed from time to time. If the surface is uneven, you may have to brush it with an additional layer of colorant.
Finally, paint another layer of primer, you dye after the processing work is completed. In the next section, we will explain this step in detail.
To prevent coloration, most colorants should be sealed. After the painted wood has been polished, apply a thin shellac varnish, clear primer or other suitable primer. Shellac varnishes should not be used with NGR colorants or water-based colorants. If you plan to use a polyurethane coating as a top coat, make sure the primer does not conflict with it before use. After the wood has been sealed and completely dried, the wood should be lightly polished on its surface with fine sandpaper. Wipe off the polished debris with a dust cloth. As well as good polish, careful closure is also crucial to the end result of furniture refurbishment.
Choose primer if to furniture chose besmear brush shellac varnish, nitrocellulose paint or natural varnish, so traditional primer should choose diluted white shellac varnish. This basic primer is made by mixing 1 part white shellac varnish (about 1.8 kg) with 3 to 4 parts denaturealcohol. Shellac varnishes are suitable for most renovation work, but they cannot be used with polyurethane varnishes, water-based colorants, or NGR colorants that do not cause texture bumps.
When shellac varnishes do not work, the easiest primer to use is a commercial primer. The primer dries very quickly and provides a very good base for polishing; It can also be used with varnishes, shellac varnishes and nitrocellulose paints. If you plan to finish your furniture with a layer of polyurethane varnish, read the manufacturer's label carefully; Because polishing the primer may conflict with the polyurethane paint. No sealing is required before applying a permeable primer.
Under the two layers of natural varnish or nitrocellulose, some classic hotel furniture professionals prefer to dilute the same topcoat mixture and then use it to seal the wood. Pour turpentine or mineral alcohol oil into the varnish and dilute it at a ratio of 1:1 to make a natural varnish sealant. The nitrocellulose paint and banana water were diluted in a ratio of 1:1 to produce a nitrocellulose sealing primer. None of these primers can be used with shellac or polyurethane varnishes.
Polyurethane varnishes require special treatment. Please read the label carefully when buying. Some polyurethane paints can be diluted with specific diluents; The manufacturer may recommend a diluted varnish as a primer. Primers are not required for some polyurethane paints. If you are sure to seal the colorant or filler before applying a polyurethane paint, make sure the primer is compatible with the varnish. Otherwise, use a permeable resin primer. The wood refurbishment is completely finished, but if you want it to look smoother, you can apply a layer of polyurethane paint to the surface.
Hotel furniture production process six: back cover.
With a clean brush, follow the texture of the wood and apply the primer quickly and evenly to the wood surface. Make sure the primer covers all surfaces evenly and pay special attention to any end textures. If the end texture is not properly treated, it will absorb more of the colorant and finish than the rest of the finish.
Allow primers to dry thoroughly: diluted white shellac varnishes take about two hours, while commercial primers take about an hour. Then lightly sand the wood surface with a 7/0 fine sandpaper. The wood needs to be polished very smooth, but it must not spoil the primer. Remove all debris from the grinding with a coarse cloth.
If you apply a layer of paint directly to the polished wood, you may need to apply multiple layers of primer to completely seal the fine holes in the wood. In this case, wait until the first primer is completely dried before brushing the second primer. Some porous wood may require several coats of primer.
Coloring wooden furniture can not only significantly improve its appearance, but also mask some imperfections. Although it may take some effort to color the furniture, when you see the brilliant colors of the furniture, you must feel that the effort is worth it.